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Table 3 Longitudinal associations between values and regular substance-use behaviour at age 18/19, unadjusted and mutually adjusted odds-ratios

From: Do 'good values' lead to 'good' health-behaviours? Longitudinal associations between young people's values and later substance-use

  Regular smoker Frequent (most days) drinker Weekly drug-use
Predictors Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Traditional       
(Trad) Sex-Roles 1.19 (1.04-1.37) 1.19 (0.98-1.46) 1.30 (1.02-1.65) 1.03 (0.73-1.44) 1.62 (1.33-1.99) 1.10 (0.88-1.38)
(Pro) Work Ethic 1.24 (1.10-1.41) 1.21 (1.02-1.45) 1.02 (0.78-1.32) 0.99 (0.77-1.27) 1.11 (0.95-1.31) 1.00 (0.85-1.18)
(Pro) Citizenship 1.04 (0.91-1.21) 1.06 (0.88-1.27) 0.98 (0.77-1.25) 0.95 (0.74-1.23) 1.11 (0.96-1.29) 1.03 (0.88-1.21)
Humanitarian       
(Pro) Equity 1.12 (0.96-1.30) 0.95 (0.77-1.18) 1.05 (0.74-1.48) 1.10 (0.80-1.52) 1.10 (0.92-1.31) 1.07 (0.88-1.31)
Self-direction       
(Anti) Authority 1.21 (1.05-1.39) 0.92 (0.76-1.11) 1.20 (0.89-1.61) 1.05 (0.78-1.42) 1.52 (1.29-1.79) 1.33 (1.10-1.61)
(Anti-trad) Politics 1.38 (1.21-1.59) 1.15 (0.96-1.38) 0.85 (0.66-1.08) 0.83 (0.64-1.09) 1.15 (1.00-1.33) 0.97 (0.84-1.12)
Self-enhancement       
(Pro) Materialism 1.02 (0.86-1.20) 1.01 (0.80-1.29) 1.22 (0.97-1.54) 1.13 (0.89-1.44) 1.01 (0.84-1.22) 0.92 (0.74-1.13)
(Pro) Individualism 0.99 (0.84-1.17) 1.14 (0.93-1.41) 1.14 (0.87-1.51) 1.13 (0.85-1.49) 0.99 (0.84-1.18) 1.06 (0.88-1.27)
Prior subst-use *       
   None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Regular prior- use 17.14 (11.88-24.71) 16.76 (11.63-24.16) 3.27 (1.03-10.38) 2.38 (0.70-8.04) 7.96 (5.51-11.48) 5.52 (3.60-8.48)
Parental Smoking       
   No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   No parent figure 3.46 (1.25-9.57) 1.74 (0.20-14.91) 1.62 (0.44-5.92) 0.52 (0.03-7.74)
   Yes 1.68 (1.19-2.39) 1.23 (0.75-2.03) 0.67 (0.34-1.32) 0.79 (0.37-1.72) 1.32 (0.91-1.92) 1.20 (0.72-2.00)
Risk taking       
   Very true 3.38 (2.29-5.01) 1.37 (0.80-2.33) 3.39 (1.66-6.93) 2.39 (1.06-5.38) 7.28 (3.92-13.50) 3.31 (1.65-6.62)
   True 2.08 (1.56-2.77) 1.29 (0.90-1.86) 1.79 (1.02-3.12) 1.66 (0.91-3.01) 3.20 (2.01-5.07) 2.09 (1.26-3.46)
   Untrue/v untrue 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sex       
   Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Male 0.98 (0.76-1.28) 0.93 (0.61-1.43) 2.54 (1.46-4.41) 2.04 (1.04-4.00) 3.54 (2.26-5.54) 2.97 (1.86-4.75)
Area deprivation 1.08 (1.00-1.17) 1.03 (0.92-1.16) 0.98 (0.81-1.18) 1.11 (0.89-1.38) 1.09 (0.97-1.21) 1.08 (0.95-1.22)
Social Class       
   Manual 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Non-manual 0.63 (0.47-0.85) 0.77 (0.48-1.21) 2.04 (1.12-3.70) 2.20 (1.15-4.21) 0.79 (0.54-1.13) 0.98 (0.66-1.46)
Family structure       
   2-parent 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1-parent 1.75 (1.21-2.52) 1.10 (0.68-1.78) 0.82 (0.40-1.68) 0.80 (0.36-1.78) 1.12 (0.78-1.62) 0.81 (0.49-1.35)
   reconstituted 2.26 (1.55-3.30) 1.78 (1.15-2.78) 0.58 (0.21-1.60) 0.55 (0.16-1.89) 1.27 (0.73-2.20) 1.09 (0.58-2.08)
   other 2.95 (1.43-6.09) 1.92 (0.37-9.89) 2.05 (0.79-5.31) 1.95 (0.27-14.16)
Low parental care 1.16 (1.06-1.26) 1.05 (0.92-1.19) 1.15 (1.02-1.29) 1.11 (0.97-1.28) 1.17 (1.07-1.27) 1.04 (0.92-1.16)
Parental control 1.01 (0.90-1.13) 0.98 (0.85-1.13) 0.98 (0.79-1.20) 0.93 (0.76-1.15) 1.01 (0.89-1.15) 0.93 (0.80-1.07)
Religion       
   Protestant 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Catholic 0.88 (0.65-1.20) 1.03 (0.72-1.48) 1.07 (0.63-1.79) 1.10 (0.64-1.87) 0.73 (0.52-1.03) 0.67 (0.46-0.97)
   Muslim/Islam 0.93 (0.41-2.14) 1.54 (0.66-3.62) 0.00 (none) ‡ 0.00 (none) ‡ 0.52 (0.15-1.74) 0.51 (0.14-1.86)
   Other 0.64 (0.35-1.20) 0.92 (0.41-2.08) 1.01 (0.33-3.03) 0.80 (0.26-2.49) 0.68 (0.33-1.39) 0.67 (0.29-1.57)
   None or Atheist 1.05 (0.65-1.71) 1.24 (0.67-2.30) 1.68 (0.90-3.12) 1.51 (0.83-2.74) 0.77 (0.49-1.21) 0.61 (0.39-0.97)
  1. Significant odds ratios (p = 0.05 or lower) are shown in bold.
  2. * = Prior use refers to use of the same substance as the outcome, e.g. for the smoking at age 18/19 outcome this means smoking at age 15.
  3. † = Due to low cell frequencies this category been collapsed into another (adjacent) grouping.
  4. ‡ = No Muslim participant reported drinking alcohol; accordingly the final model excluded Muslim participants.