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Table 2 Cross-sectional associations between values and regular substance-use at age 15, unadjusted and mutually adjusted odds-ratios.

From: Do 'good values' lead to 'good' health-behaviours? Longitudinal associations between young people's values and later substance-use

  Regular smoker Frequent (most days) drinker Weekly drug-use
Predictors Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Traditional       
(Trad) Sex-Roles 1.09 (0.96-1.23) 1.22 (1.05-1.41) 1.60 (1.24-2.07) 1.40 (1.09-1.81) 1.67 (1.45-1.92) 1.53 (1.30-1.81)
(Pro) Work Ethic 1.17 (1.03-1.32) 1.18 (1.04-1.33) 1.13 (0.84-1.51) 1.10 (0.85-1.44) 1.11 (0.96-1.28) 1.06 (0.91-1.24)
(Pro) Citizenship 1.04 (0.93-1.16) 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 1.09 (0.83-1.44) 1.14 (0.88-1.48) 1.03 (0.89-1.19) 1.01 (0.87-1.18)
Humanitarian       
(Pro) Equity 1.27 (1.15-1.42) 1.25 (1.12-1.39) 0.97 (0.77-1.21) 0.99 (0.78-1.24) 1.13 (0.97-1.30) 1.09 (0.93-1.27)
Self-direction       
(Anti) Authority 1.53 (1.35-1.74) 1.33 (1.17-1.51) 1.67 (1.31-2.13) 1.33 (0.98-1.79) 1.64 (1.40-1.91) 1.45 (1.21-1.75)
(Anti-trad) Politics 1.49 (1.35-1.64) 1.39 (1.23-1.57) 1.41 (1.08-1.83) 1.38 (1.02-1.77) 1.48 (1.31-1.67) 1.32 (1.17-1.49)
Self-enhancement       
(Pro) Materialism 0.99 (0.88-1.11) 0.96 (0.85-1.09) 1.08 (0.78-1.48) 0.99 (0.72-1.36) 1.11 (0.94-1.31) 1.04 (0.87-1.23)
(Pro) Individualism 0.83 (0.72-0.94) 0.84 (0.73-0.96) 0.88 (0.66-1.17) 0.86 (0.64-1.14) 0.77 (0.65-0.91) 0.78 (0.66-0.92)
Parental Smoking       
   No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   No parent figure 2.20 (0.95-5.10) 1.27 (0.35-4.64) 5.78 (1.86-17.93) 2.24 (0.19-27.21) 3.36 (1.63-6.94) 2.03 (0.55-7.56)
   Yes 1.73 (1.40-2.15) 1.36 (1.04-1.76) 0.82 (0.44-1.53) 0.91 (0.45-1.87) 1.64 (1.25-2.15) 1.40 (1.00-1.96)
Risk taking       
   Very true 5.25 (3.75-7.36) 4.25 (2.89-6.26) 10.01 (4.95-20.23) 4.26 (1.84-9.85) 10.98 (6.66-18.11) 5.94 (3.52-10.03)
   True 2.74 (2.16-3.48) 2.33 (1.79-3.04) 2.95 (1.27-6.86) 1.87 (0.74-4.69) 4.12 (2.83-6.00) 2.81 (1.90-4.16)
   Untrue/v untrue 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sex       
   Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Male 0.73 (0.58-0.93) 0.50 (0.37-0.66) 2.84 (1.56-5.14) 1.82 (0.97-3.40) 1.90 (1.45-2.49) 1.10 (0.80-1.52)
Area deprivation 1.02 (0.96-1.10) 0.93 (0.86-1.00) 0.88 (0.78-0.99) 0.85 (0.75-0.96) 1.09 (1.01-1.19) 1.02 (0.93-1.13)
Social Class       
   Manual 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Non-manual 0.72 (0.56-0.93) 0.86 (0.67-1.09) 1.02 (0.67-1.54) 1.05 (0.66-1.67) 0.65 (0.48-0.88) 0.84 (0.57-1.23)
Family structure       
   2-parent 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1-parent 2.19 (1.65-2.91) 1.78 (1.29-2.45) 0.91 (0.49-1.69) 0.79 (0.37-1.67) 1.88 (1.42-2.49) 1.41 (1.03-1.93)
   reconstituted 2.07 (1.47-2.93) 1.71 (1.18-2.50) 1.49 (0.72-3.05) 1.42 (0.64-3.16) 1.86 (1.24-2.78) 1.60 (1.07-2.40)
   other 1.95 (1.04-3.66) 1.19 (0.46-3.05) 5.65 (2.17-14.71) 3.34 (0.44-25.27) 2.88 (1.42-5.82) 1.46 (0.49-4.36)
Low parental care 1.24 (1.15-1.33) 1.11 (1.04-1.19) 1.34 (1.17-1.53) 1.19 (1.00-1.40) 1.22 (1.16-1.29) 1.06 (0.98-1.15)
Parental control 1.01 (0.91-1.11) 0.96 (0.86-1.08) 1.11 (0.91-1.36) 1.03 (0.83-1.28) 1.13 (0.99-1.28) 1.07 (0.95-1.21)
Religion       
   Protestant 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Catholic 0.75 (0.56-0.99) 0.76 (0.55-1.04) 1.42 (0.68-2.95) 1.67 (0.80-3.46) 1.21 (0.80-1.81) 1.24 (0.81-1.90)
   Muslim/Islam 0.47 (0.15-1.42) 0.62 (0.18-2.19) 0.00 (none) † 0.00 (none) † 0.35 (0.07-1.69) 0.32 (0.06-1.68)
   Other 0.59 (0.35-1.00) 0.79 (0.48-1.29) 1.20 (0.34-4.26) 1.18 (0.31-4.44) 1.01 (0.54-1.91) 1.40 (0.68-2.87)
   None or atheist 0.92 (0.63-1.33) 0.76 (0.52-1.12) 2.23 (0.89-5.55) 1.97 (0.76-5.11) 1.16 (0.76-1.78) 1.00 (0.65-1.55)
  1. Significant odds ratios (p = 0.05 or lower) are shown in bold.
  2. † = No Muslim participant reported drinking alcohol; accordingly the final model excluded Muslim participants.