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Table 1 Univariate proportional-hazards models for mortality vs. travel time variables and covariates of interest in children under 5 years old, under 1 year old and 1 to 4 years old: hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals

From: Geographic access to care is not a determinant of child mortality in a rural Kenyan setting with high health facility density

  <5 years <1 year 1-4 years
Risk variable HR (95% CI) p-val HR (95% CI) p-val HR (95% CI) p-val
Travel time variables          
   Hospital -- pedestrian (per 60 min) 0.99 (0.95,1.04) 0.73 0.98 (0.94,1.01) 0.32 1.02 (0.96,1.09) 0.47
   Hospital -- vehicular (per 30 min) 1.01 (0.95,1.08) 0.73 0.98 (0.92,1.03) 0.40 **1.09 (1.03,1.16) <0.01
   Vaccine clinics -- pedestrian (per 15 min) 1.00 (0.98,1.03) 0.73 1.00 (0.97,1.03) 1.00 1.02 (0.98,1.06) 0.43
   Vaccine clinics -- vehicular (per 15 min) 0.97 (0.93,1.02) 0.25 *0.95 (0.92,0.99) 0.03 1.02 (0.96,1.07) 0.58
Sex          
   Female 1    1    1   
   Male **1.15 (1.04,1.28) <0.01 **1.23 (1.08,1.40) <0.01 1.01 (0.82,1.23) 0.96
Ethnicity    0.03    0.17    <0.01
   Giriama 1    1    1   
   Chonyi 1.04 (0.90,1.19) 0.62 1.00 (0.86,1.15) 0.95 1.15 (0.96,1.37) 0.14
   Kauma 0.89 (0.76,1.04) 0.14 0.83 (0.68,1.02) 0.07 1.09 (0.88,1.35) 0.42
   Luo 1.47 (0.97,2.23) 0.07 1.10 (0.01, >99) 0.99 **3.08 (1.83,5.17) <0.01
   Duruma *1.56 (1.04,2.35) 0.03 1.64 (0.91,2.94) 0.10 *1.49 (1.03,2.15) 0.03
   Jibana 1.28 (0.93,1.77) 0.13 1.18 (0.86,1.60) 0.31 1.15 (0.73,1.81) 0.54
   "Other" 1.05 (0.81,1.36) 0.70 1.14 (0.93,1.41) 0.21 0.73 (0.49,1.09) 0.13
Proportion of women with any education    0.98    0.51    0.41
   <0.5 1    1    1   
   0.5-<0.6 0.96 (0.77,1.21) 0.75 1.05 (0.87,1.26) 0.61 0.84 (0.66,1.07) 0.10
   0.6-<0.7 0.99 (0.81,1.22) 0.93 1.10 (0.86,1.40) 0.47 0.79 (0.51,1.21) 0.17
   ≥ 0.7 0.97 (0.80,1.17) 0.71 1.12 (0.96,1.31) 0.14 0.67 (0.40,1.13) 0.18
Migrant status          
   Non-migrant 1    1    1   
   Migrant 0.93 (0.82,1.06) 0.29 0.91 (0.75,1.10) 0.32 1.02 (0.77,1.35) 0.89
Rainfall          
   < 40 mm per 7 days 1    1    1   
   ≥ 40 mm per 7 days **0.71 (0.62,0.80) <0.01 **0.72 (0.93,1.02) <0.01 **0.69 (0.56,0.86) <0.01
  1. (*p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01)
  2. Note: The analysis of maternal education was specified 'per location' not per mother.