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Table 4 Overview of the Measurements before and after the Intervention

From: Diet and lifestyle interventions in postpartum women in China: study design and rationale of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

Indexes Assessing methods
Nutrition and health knowledge Questionnaires
Puerperium diet and lifestyle  
   Diet patterns 24-hour dietary recording and FFQ
   Health-related behaviors Questionnaires
   Physical activities Questionnaires
Assessment of nutritional status  
   Macronutrients intake (protein, lipid and carbohydrate, and dietary fiber from cereals, sugar, vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, milk, soybeans, etc.) 24-hour dietary recording and FFQ, which include both food categories and amount
   Micronutrients intake  
Vitamins HPLC for vitamin A and vitamin D, load test for B vitamins and vitamin C
Minierals AAS for serum calcium, iron and zinc
   Nutrient Metabolism  
Blood glucose and lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides Automatic biochemical analyzer
Postpartum recovery and health status  
   Anthropometric measurements, including height, body weight, and BMI BMI = body weight (kg)/height (m2)
   Body recovery, including duration for lochia, amount and duration of postpartum hemorrhage, degree of uterine involution Diagnosis by specialized obstetricians
   Diseases prevalence, including puerperal infection, fever, constipation, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, breast disease, oral ulcers, gum bleeding, anemia, pains (headache, heel pain, back pain, leg pain, joint pain, leg cramps, etc.) Diagnosis by specialized doctors
   Postpartum depression Assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
Milk secretion and neo development Assessed by specialized doctors
  1. FFQ indicates food frequency questionnaires; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; AAS, atomic absorption spectrophotometry; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BMI, body mass index