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Table 4 Association of Down's syndrome with water fluoride level

From: Association of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level: a systematic review of the evidence

Author (Year) Crude relative risk Confounding factors discussed in Controlled for Validity score
   study   
Erickson(1976) 1.16(p > 0.05) Maternal age, race Yes 3.5
  0.96 (p > 0.05)    
Erickson(1980) 0.93 (0.7, 1.2) Maternal age, race Yes 3.5
Needleman(1974) 1.14 Maternal age No 2.0
Rapaport (1957) 2.3 (p < 0.01) Maternal age No 2.0
  2.9 (p < 0.01)    
  2.4 (p < 0.05)    
Rapaport (1963) 3.0(p < 0.001) Maternal age, minerals in water No 2.0
Berry (1958) 0.84–1.48 None No 1.8