Content we consider
Aims and scope
BMC Public Health is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on the epidemiology of disease and the understanding of all aspects of public health. The journal has a special focus on the social determinants of health, the environmental, behavioral, and occupational correlates of health and disease, and the impact of health policies, practices and interventions on the community. BMC Public Health does not publish clinical research: this should be submitted to the relevant BMC Series medical journal.
BMC Public Health welcomes manuscripts in the following broad areas of research:
Biostatistics and methods including studies looking at statistical models and methods and their application to problems of human health and disease.
Chronic disease epidemiology including studies on the epidemiology of chronic diseases and the use of public health interventions for their control.
Dental public health including studies on the prevention and control of oral disease and the promotion of oral health through organized community efforts.
Digital health including studies that address digital (e-health) interventions and their applications in public health. We welcome research which seeks to improve public health through the application of novel technology at the personal, community and global levels.
Disaster and emergency preparedness and response including studies examining measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters. We welcome research on the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery).
Education and training in public health including studies on the education and training of public health professionals as well as research looking at teaching volunteers and the community the skills they need to function effectively in contributing to public health efforts.
Environmental health including studies on the environmental correlates of health and disease.
Global health and human rights including studies looking at the health of populations in a global context which transcends the perspectives and concerns of individual nations. We welcome articles on the influences of human rights violations on health in developing and transitional countries, as well as all issues relating to the impact of health policies, programs and practices on human rights.
Health behavior and health promotion including studies examining lifestyle choices and health behaviors, from drug, alcohol and cigarette consumption, to perceptions of safe sexual behavior and vaccine uptake, seeking to enable all communities to increase control over their health, and empower them to maintain, attain, or regain good health and prevent disease.
Health communication including studies examining the use of communication strategies to inform and influence decisions and actions to improve health; this includes the practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns and public health education.
Health economics and outcomes research including studies applying methods in economic evaluation and outcomes research to promote efficient and equitable allocation of healthcare resources in public health.
Health policies, systems and management including studies looking at the impact of health policies, practices and interventions on communities in high- and low and middle-income countries.
Infectious disease epidemiology including studies on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and the use of public health interventions for their control.
Injury and violence prevention including studies which address the social and behavioral influences on unintentional injuries, such as falls, drowning and motor vehicle crashes and violence such as bullying and child maltreatment.
Maternal and child health including studies on all aspects of maternal public health, also going beyond pregnancy and childbirth. We welcome research in the field of child and adolescent public health that seek to help improve the complete health of people in the age range of infants to young adults.
Mental health including research that that will transform our collective understanding of this area, from the individual to the community level, and across all sectors. This includes studies that employ an epidemiological approach to examine stress, anxiety, depression, self-harm and suicide. We encourage submissions that address growing areas of concern, from technology and social media and its impacts on bullying and self-image, to issues of loneliness and isolation.
Nutritional health and epidemiology including studies examining dietary or nutritional factors in relation to disease occurrence in populations. We welcome research on the development of interventions to achieve and maintain healthful eating patterns among populations.
Occupational health including occupational safety and studies on the occupational correlates of health and disease.
Physical activity and health including studies examining the relationship between physical activity and health. We welcome research examining how behavioral, community, and environmental interventions may affect physical activity on a population level.
Public health informatics including studies on the use of information technology in enabling effective monitoring and surveillance, supporting improved decision-making, and improving population health.
Social determinants of health including research related to the social determinants of health, including, but not limited to, the influences and interactions of personal characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity, disability and hereditary factors), social and community networks (family and wider social circles), living and working conditions (work, housing, education), and general socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions (taxation, availability of work) on public health and well-being.
BMC Public Health does not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or its likely impact. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.
All articles published by BMC Public Health are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers. Further information about open access can be found here.
As authors of articles published in BMC Public Health you are the copyright holders of your article and have granted to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate your article, according to the BMC license agreement.
For those of you who are US government employees or are prevented from being copyright holders for similar reasons, BMC can accommodate non-standard copyright lines. Please contact us if further information is needed.
BMC Public Health follows the policies of the BMC journals, unless otherwise noted below which are designed to support our commitment to open data sharing.
Availability of datasets
Where a widely established research community expectation for data archiving in public repositories exists, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. A list of data where deposition is required, can be found on the Editorial Policies Page.
BMC Public Health strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. If a dataset is not able to be deposited in any of the above repositories due to legal guidelines or ethical reasons, this must be clearly stated in the “Availability of Data and Materials” section.
BMC endorses the Force 11 Data Citation Principles and requires that all publicly available datasets be fully referenced in the reference list with an accession number or unique identifier such as a digital object identifier (DOI).
Authors are required to formally cite any datasets stored in external repositories that are mentioned within their manuscript, including the main datasets that are the focus of the submission, as well as any other datasets that have been used in the work. For previously published datasets, we ask authors to cite both the related research articles and the datasets themselves. All methods, software, and code developed for the manuscript should include a citation on the reference list.
All Springer Nature journals, including BMC Public Health, are participants in the Initiative for Open Citations. As such, data citations are included in full in the formal reference list, exported to Crossref and are openly available.
An author list and title for the dataset should be included in the data citation, and should reflect the author(s) and dataset title recorded at the repository. If author or title is not recorded by the repository, these should not be included in the data citation. The name of the data-hosting repository, URL to the dataset and year the data were made available are required for all data citations. For DOI-based (e.g. figshare or Dryad) repositories the DOI URL should be used. For repositories using accessions (e.g. SRA or GEO) an identifiers.org URL should be used where available. Please refer to the following examples of data citation for guidance:
- Zhang, Q-L., Chen, J-Y., Lin, L-B., Wang, F., Guo, J., Deng, X-Y. Characterization of ladybird Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata transcriptomes across various life stages. figshare https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4064768.v3 (2018).
- NCBI Sequence Read Archive https://identifiers.org/ncbi/insdc.sra:SRP121625 (2017).
- Barbosa, P., Usie, A. and Ramos, A. M. Quercus suber isolate HL8, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank https://identifiers.org/ncbi/insdc:PKMF00000000 (2018).
- DNA Data Bank of Japan https://trace.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/DRASearch/submission?acc=DRA004814 (2016).
Availability of computer code and software
Authors must make available upon request, to editors and reviewers, any previously unreported custom computer code or algorithm used to generate the data presented in the manuscript. If published, the software application/tool should be readily available to any scientist wishing to use it for non-commercial purposes, without restrictions (such as the need for a material transfer agreement). If the implementation is not made freely available, then the manuscript should focus clearly on the development of the underlying method and not discuss the tool in any detail.
A statement describing how software or custom code can be accessed must be included in the Declaration section “Availability of Data and Materials". License information for the software or method should also be stated clearly in the “Availability of Data and Materials section” and on the repository site.
This section should include a link to the most recent version of your software or code (e.g. GitHub or Sourceforge or Code Ocean) as well as a link to the archived version referenced in the manuscript. The software or code should be archived in an appropriate repository with a DOI or other unique identifier. For software in GitHub, we recommend using Zenodo.
Code with an assigned DOI must be formally cited and listed in the References section of the manuscript.
Availability of research materials
BMC Public Health follows the BMC editorial policies for the sharing of research materials.
Submission of a manuscript to a BMC journal implies that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any scientist wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes. It is acceptable to request reasonable payment to cover costs of distribution and reagents may be made available via commercial or non-commercial third party providers. Any restrictions on materials availability, including if materials are to be distributed by a for-profit company, must be clearly stated in the paper. As per our policy on authorship responsibilities, it is expected that the corresponding author (or relevant designated authors) will be responsible for materials availability unless otherwise stated.
BMC Public Health encourages study pre-registration and pre-registration of analysis plans in public repositories; details of pre-registration should be provided in the manuscript.
BMC Public Health welcomes submission of replication studies that provide new insights into previously published results and will evaluate these submissions with the same editorial standards we apply to other submissions.
Standards of reporting
BMC Public Health advocates complete and transparent reporting of research and follows the BMC editorial policies on standards of reporting. Additional information is available through the journal’s submission guidelines.
Helpful resources for sharing your research data
We are committed to supporting researchers in sharing their research data, and getting the credit they deserve. Here are some useful resources to help:
Open access publishing is not without costs. BMC Public Health therefore levies an article-processing charge of £2090.00/$2790.00/€2490.00 for each article accepted for publication, plus VAT or local taxes where applicable.
If the corresponding author's institution participates in our open access membership program, some or all of the publication cost may be covered (more details available on the membership page). We routinely waive charges for authors from low-income countries. For other countries, article-processing charge waivers or discounts are granted on a case-by-case basis to authors with insufficient funds. Authors can request a waiver or discount during the submission process. For further details, see our article-processing charge page.
Visit Springer Nature’s open access funding & support services for information about research funders and institutions that provide funding for APCs.
Springer Nature offers agreements that enable institutions to cover open access publishing costs. Learn more about our open access agreements to check your eligibility and discover whether this journal is included.
For more information on APCs please see our Journal Pricing FAQs
All articles published in BMC Public Health are included in:
- BFI List
- CAB Abstracts
- Chemical Abstracts Service
- Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) - GoOA
- EBSCO Academic Search
- EBSCO Biomedical Reference Collection
- EBSCO CINAHL
- EBSCO Discovery Service
- EBSCO Family & Society Studies Worldwide
- EBSCO Food Science Source
- EBSCO Health Policy Reference Center
- EBSCO Public Affairs Index
- EBSCO STM Source
- Google Scholar
- IFIS Publishing
- INIS Atomindex
- Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
- OCLC WorldCat Discovery Service
- ProQuest-ExLibris Primo
- ProQuest-ExLibris Summon
- Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
- Semantic Scholar
- TD Net Discovery Service
- UGC-CARE List (India)
The full text of all articles is deposited in digital archives around the world to guarantee long-term digital preservation. You can also access all articles published by BioMed Central on SpringerLink.
Peer-review is the system used to assess the quality of a manuscript before it is published. Independent researchers in the relevant research area assess submitted manuscripts for originality, validity and significance to help editors determine whether the manuscript should be published in their journal. You can read more about the peer-review process here.
In cases where the journal is unable to find sufficient peer reviewers, the services of a publishing partner, Research Square, may be used to identify suitable reviewers and provide reports to avoid further delays for authors. Reviewers recruited by Research Square are paid a small honorarium for completing the review within a specified timeframe. Honoraria are paid regardless of the reviewer recommendation. With Research Square, a double-anonymous peer review system is in operation.
In cases where reports have been obtained by Research Square, the peer review reports will be unsigned unless the reviewer opts in to sign the report.
BMC Public Health operates a transparent peer-review system, where, if the article is published, the reviewer reports are published online alongside the article under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 but the reviewer is not named.
The benefit of transparent peer review is that it increases transparency. In addition, published reports can serve an educational purpose in helping facilitate training and research into peer review.
Manuscripts submitted to BMC Public Health are assessed by our editors and/or peer reviewers. All published articles are peer-reviewed. Overall editorial responsibility for the journal is with the Editor with Editorial Board Members acting as handling editors.
BMC Public Health is part of the BMC series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We do not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or its likely impact. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.
Specific criteria for other article types can be found in the submission guidelines.
All manuscripts submitted to BMC Public Health should adhere to BMC's editorial policies.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Authors who wish to appeal a rejection or make a complaint should follow the procedure outlined in the BMC Editorial Policies.
Articles in BMC Public Health should be cited in the same way as articles in a traditional journal. Because articles are not printed, they do not have page numbers; instead, they are given a unique article number.
Article citations follow this format:
Authors: Title. BMC Public Health [year], [volume number]:[article number].
e.g. Roberts LD, Hassall DG, Winegar DA, Haselden JN, Nicholls AW, Griffin JL: Increased hepatic oxidative metabolism distinguishes the action of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor delta from Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma in the Ob/Ob mouse. BMC Public Health 2009, 1:115.
refers to article 115 from Volume 1 of the journal.
Benefits of publishing with BMC
BMC Public Health's open access policy allows maximum visibility of articles published in the journal as they are available to a wide, global audience.
Speed of publication
BMC Public Health offers a fast publication schedule whilst maintaining rigorous peer review; all articles must be submitted online, and peer review is managed fully electronically (articles are distributed in PDF form, which is automatically generated from the submitted files). Articles will be published with their final citation after acceptance, in both fully browsable web form, and as a formatted PDF.
Online publication in BMC Public Health gives you the opportunity to publish large datasets, large numbers of color illustrations and moving pictures, to display data in a form that can be read directly by other software packages so as to allow readers to manipulate the data for themselves, and to create all relevant links (for example, to PubMed, to sequence and other databases, and to other articles).
Promotion and press coverage
Articles published in BMC Public Health are included in article alerts and regular email updates. Some may be highlighted on BMC Public Health’s pages and on the BMC homepage.
In addition, articles published in BMC Public Health may be promoted by press releases to the general or scientific press. These activities increase the exposure and number of accesses for articles published in BMC Public Health. A list of articles recently press-released by journals published by BMC is available here.
As an author of an article published in BMC Public Health you retain the copyright of your article and you are free to reproduce and disseminate your work (for further details, see the BMC license agreement).
For further information about the advantages of publishing in a journal from BMC, please click here.
Annual Journal Metrics
67 days to first decision for all manuscripts (Median)
79 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only (Median)
21,016,836 downloads (2021)
23,901 Altmetric mentions (2021)
The following summary describes the peer review process for this journal:
Identity transparency: Single anonymized
Reviewer interacts with: Editor
Review information published: Review reports. Reviewer Identities reviewer opt in. Author/reviewer communication