Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain, 2001–2005
© López-de-Andrés et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 13 September 2007
Accepted: 08 April 2008
Published: 08 April 2008
This study aims to describe and analyze hospital admissions in Spain due to rotavirus infections among children aged 5 years or under during the period 2001–2005, along with the associated health cost.
To update estimates of rotavirus hospitalizations rates in Spain, we conducted a retrospective study of 5 years of national hospitalization data associated with acute gastroenteritis using the Minimum Basic Data Set.
During the study period, a total of 17.1% of all admissions due to acute gastroenteritis of any etiology in children aged ≤ 5 years were attributable to rotavirus infection as determined by the rotavirus-specific International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification code. A mean incidence of 135 hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus per 100,000 children aged ≤ 5 years was found. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus had a marked winter-time seasonality. The estimated cost of hospital admission attributable to rotavirus has risen from 3 million euros estimated for 2001 to almost 7 million euros estimated in 2005.
Rotavirus gastroenteritis remains an important cause of hospitalizations in Spanish children, mostly during the winter season.
Rotavirus is regarded as the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age . Indeed, in the USA, rotavirus generates 410,000 medical consultations, 205,000–272,000 emergency visits, and 55,000–70,000 hospital admissions per year [2–5]. Estimates show that in 2006, Europe had 3.6 million cases per year among children aged under 5 years, with 231 deaths, in excess of 87,000 admissions, and around 700,000 medical consultations . Currently, this infection places a considerable economic burden on the health systems of developed countries, made up of the direct cost of consultations, emergency visits and hospital admissions, plus indirect costs, such as days of work lost by parents [7, 8]. The overall cost of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in the USA has been calculated as being close on one billion dollars [2–5]. A recent update of the global burden of rotavirus disease put the median cost of hospital stay in EU-25 Member States at €1,417 .
In Spain, two rotavirus vaccines are available (Rotateq®, Rotarix®), so far the Spanish public health authorities have not included them in the children Vaccination Recommendations. As there is no rotavirus-specific surveillance system in Spain, the data source used to estimate the frequency of hospital admissions was the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS), which is fully implemented in the Spanish health system . Accordingly, from 1999 to 2000, winter incidence of hospital admissions due to rotavirus was 2.5 per 1000 children under 5 years of age, at an annual total cost of 3.6 million euros .
This study sought to describe and analyze hospital admissions in Spain due to rotavirus infections among children aged 5 years or under during the period 2001–2005, along with the associated total health cost.
A retrospective, descriptive, epidemiologic study was conducted, using the MBDS as the data source. The MBDS is a national hospital admission database, managed by the Ministry of Health and showing all hospitalizations for which the diagnoses are coded according to the Spanish version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) . No ethical approval was required due to the fact that the data was publicly available. Aside from diagnoses at discharge (with the principal diagnosis shown first, and secondary diagnoses in the remaining positions), variables covered by the MBDS include: hospital identification; patients' identification, date of birth, gender, place of residence, and date of admission; surgical and obstetric procedures; other procedures; and, date and type of discharge. Estimated MBDS coverage is 95% of hospitals admissions nationwide [12, 13].
We selected MBDS data corresponding to hospital admissions during the study period among children aged 5 years or under, with principal diagnosis at discharge of intestinal infectious gastroenteritis (ICD-9-CM codes 001 to 009 excluding 003.2, 006.3, 006.6) or noninfectious gastroenteritis (ICD-9-CM code 558.9). Based on ICD-9-CM codes 001–009, we then selected code 008.61, which specifically relates to rotavirus infection.
Incidence of hospitalization due to infectious and/or noninfectious gastroenteritis and rotavirus, and mean hospital stay were calculated, overall and stratified by age group. The population used as denominator for the calculation of incidence was obtained from a projection of the 2001 Spanish census for the study period, duly adjusted to the 95% of the population assigned to hospitals included in the MBDS . Seasonal distribution of rotavirus admissions was compared using the Microbiologic Information System (MIS). The MIS is based on voluntary weekly reports of individual, microbiological case diagnoses performed by public-health-system laboratories. The coverage achieved by this system is low and geographically irregular, so data on the SIM cannot therefore be assumed to be representative of the population as a whole. However, these data are useful to describe trends, as the coverage did not change over the years . We analyzed related comorbidity, mortality, and the direct medical cost to the health system of rotavirus hospitalizations. These costs were calculated using Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) for this disease. According to the DRG reimbursement system, every hospitalized patient belongs to a group of diagnostically homogeneous cases; therefore patients within each category are similar clinically and are expected to use the same level of hospital resources. As a result patients in the same DRG group are assigned the same reimbursement charges .
A specific DRG for rotavirus gastroenteritis does not exist, therefore DRG 184 (esophagitis, gastroenteritis, and miscellaneous digestive disorders, age < 18) and 298 (nutritional and miscellaneous metabolic disorders, age < 18) were used (CMS-DRG version 22.0) .
All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistics computer software package (version 14.0; Chicago, Illinois, USA). Quantitative variables were expressed as mean, median and standard deviation, and qualitative variables as frequency and percentage with 95% confidence intervals. Chi squared test was used to compare categorical variables and t tests to compare means. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 (p values are two-tailed).
A total of 95,054 children aged ≤ 5 years with infectious or noninfectious acute gastroenteritis (AGE) (789 cases per 100,000 population ≤ 5 years of age) were admitted to hospitals covered by the MBDS over the 5-year study period. Mean age of cases was 20.9 ± 17.4 months (median: 17 months), and 55.3% were males. There were 44 deaths among children hospitalized with AGE during the study period.
Acute gastroenteritis by infectious etiology among children ≤ 5 years from year 2001 to 2005 according to Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS).
Number of hospitalizations (%)
Hospital admissions by acute gastroenteritis of any etiology and by rotavirus for years 2001–2005 according to Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS).
Total admissions by acute gastroenteritis
Total admissions by rotavirus
Mean Stay (SD)
Incidence * 100,000 (CI95%)
Mean Stay (SD)
Incidence * 100,000 (CI95%)
% Acute gastroenteritis owed to rotavirus
A total of 17.1% of all admissions due to AGE of any etiology in children aged ≤ 5 years were attributable to rotavirus, with a total of 16,255 cases in the 5 years of study, indicating a mean incidence of 135 admissions per 100,000 children aged ≤ 5 years (95% confidence interval: 133–137). In 2005, this value rose to 24.4%, which meant 182 admissions per 100,000 children aged ≤ 5 years (95% confidence interval: 177–188). Mean hospital stay for rotavirus admissions was significantly higher than that for all-cause gastroenteritis admissions (4.2 ± 3.1 days vs. 3.7 ± 3.4 days). As from 2003, there was a significant reduction in mean stay (p ≤ 0.05, declining from 4.4 ± 4.5 days to 3.9 ± 2.4 days in 2005).
Total hospital admissions from 2001 to 2005 caused by acute gastroenteritis of any etiology and by rotavirus by age groups according to Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS).
Total admissions by acute gastroenteritis
Total admissions by rotavirus
Mean stay (SD)
Incidence * 100,000(CI95%)
Mean stay (SD)
Incidence * 100,000 (IC95%)
% Acute gastroenteritis owed to rotavirus
% by age group
< 1 year
A total of 36.4% of children admitted with principal diagnosis of rotavirus had secondary diagnoses: and of these, 52% presented with weight loss, 13.7% with acidosis, and the remaining 34% with other diagnoses.
Of the 16,255 children admitted for rotavirus-related intestinal infection during the 5 years of the study, 8 died as a consequence of this infection (0.04%).
Across the 5 years of our study, incidence of rotavirus-related hospital admissions in Spain among children aged ≤ 5 years was 135 per 100,000, higher than that described for the period 1999–2000, which put it at 103.9 per 100,000 . In our study, incidence rose in 2005 to 182 per 100,000 children aged ≤ 5 years. Broken down by age group, this value was 384 per 100,000 among infants under 1 year of age, and 262 per 100,000 among children aged 1–2 years. These data are lower than the European mean (300 per 100,000 children aged under 5 years, range: 30–1190 per 100,000), described in the Pediatric Rotavirus European Committee's 2006 review . This difference can be attributed to two factors. First, hospital admission and health-system access policies differ among the various European countries. Second, results may be influenced by the design of the study undertaken, on including data obtained on the basis of direct or indirect estimates using microbiologic and hospital record data, as well as data from prospective studies.
Our study data show that in Spain, among all children aged ≤ 5 years with AGE as principal diagnosis, the proportion of hospital admissions due to rotavirus has risen, i.e., from 13.5% in the period 1999–2000  to 17.1% in the study period (2001–2005). This last finding is in line with a study conducted in the USA from 1993–2002, using a methodology similar to ours, in which a mean value of 18% associated with rotavirus infection was reported . Furthermore, in Europe, 10.4%–36.0% of all children aged ≤ 5 years admitted with AGE in the period 2004–2005 were hospitalized as a consequence of rotavirus . Though we have defined a case of rotavirus by a specific ICD code, 008.61, and not by microbiological diagnosis, we considered that this code was likely given only for cases where rotavirus was detected in the stool of the patient. We consider that one reason for the increasing trend in rotavirus may be that physicians are sending more stool of the patient to be laboratory for a microbiological analysis.
Of all the infectious types of gastroenteritis that we studied, approximately one third of admissions corresponded to rotavirus, a figure similar to that described in different American and European studies [3, 19–21].
In our study, as in the case of the USA and Europe, risk of hospitalization due to rotavirus was higher among children under two years of age [4, 9]. Mean hospital stay among children under 5 years of age, albeit slightly shorter than the European mean (4.8 days), lies within the European range (2–9.5 days) .
As in other European countries and the USA, during the annual epidemic period rotavirus causes an excess of hospitalizations due to gastroenteritis [4, 22–24]. Indeed, in Spain, 13.9% of all positive cultures reported to the MIS during the study period corresponded to rotavirus, there being a clear seasonal distribution in evidence, with peak incidence in winter, liked in other studies with different methodology [8, 25]
Soriano-Gabarro and coworkers  estimated that 7 rotavirus deaths occur annually in Spain, using a model developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . This value is higher than that obtained in our study, inasmuch as 8 deaths were reported over a period of 5 years. This could be explained by the fact that their estimates, rather than being solely based on Spanish data, were arrived at on the basis of per capita gross national income .
The cost of hospital admission in Spain for children under 5 years of age has risen from the 3.6 million euros estimated for the period 1999–2000  to almost 7 million euros estimated in our study for 2005. Although the greater part of rotavirus diseases are successfully treated in a primary care setting in Spain, hospitalization-related costs nevertheless account for approximately 80% of total medical costs associated with rotavirus infection .
This study has a number of limitations. In the first place, a national administrative database was used as the data source, since in Spain rotavirus infections are not subject to special surveillance, nor are they statutorily notifiable, which means that information may not be collected from all Spanish hospitals or that the information may be incomplete. Furthermore as data from the MBDS is anonymous it is impossible to identify if the same child is hospitalized more than once in the same year. However, the MBDS, which was first introduced in 1982, is a mandatory register and has an estimated coverage of as high as 95% . Secondly, only rotavirus cases whose code appeared in the first diagnosis were selected from the database, with the result that the number of cases might be underestimated. The reason given be other authors to explain this underestimation include: paediatricians in many hospitals may have been discouraged from ordering diagnostic tests for rotavirus that increase the cost of medical care but not significantly alter treatment decisions; therefore it is possible that not all the patients undergo a stool analysis; and that some laboratories do not have sensitive enough tests for the detection of the virus [3, 26, 27]. We nevertheless consider that the use of this database was justified, on its having been developed as a useful instrument for ascertaining the mean stay of patients admitted to Spanish hospitals  as in other countries of our environment [26, 27]. Thirdly, both the incidence and proportion of acute gastroenteritis represented by rotavirus may possibly have risen as a consequence of health professionals showing heightened interest in this microorganism in recent years and, by extension, requesting microbiologic confirmation in a greater proportion of AGE cases.
In conclusion, this study provides updated information on the extent of diseases and the cost of rotavirus-specific hospitalizations in Spain. Our results indicate that gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus in Spain is an important health problem, particularly among children aged under 2 years, mostly during the winter season.
The authors are grateful to the Subdirección General del Instituto de Información Sanitaria (Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo) for providing the information on which this study is sustained.
- Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresee JS, Miller MA, Glass RI: Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003, 9: 565-572.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tucker AW, Haddix AC, Bresee JS, Holman RC, Parashar UD, Glass RI: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rotavirus immunization program for the United States. JAMA. 1998, 279: 1371-1376. 10.1001/jama.279.17.1371.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parashar UD, Holman RC, Clarke MJ, Bresee JS, Glass RI: Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD-9-CM rotavirus-specific diagnostic code. J Infect Dis. 1997, 177: 13-17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Charles MD, Holman RC, Curns AT, Parashar UD, Glass RI, Breese JS: Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in the United States., 1993–2002. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006, 25: 489-493. 10.1097/01.inf.0000215234.91997.21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malek MA, Curns AT, Holman RC, Fischer TK, Breese JS, Glass RI, Steiner CA, Parashar UD: Diarrhea-and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations among children less than 5 years of age: United States, 1997 and 2000. Pediatrics. 2006, 117: 1887-1892. 10.1542/peds.2005-2351.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soriano-Gabarro M, Mrukowicz J, Vesikari T, Verstraeten T: Burden of rotavirus disease in European Union countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006, 7-11. Suppl 1
- Rheingans RD, Heylen J, Giaquinto C: Economics of rotavirus gastroenteritis and vaccination in Europe. What makes sense?. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006, 48-55. Suppl 1
- Giaquinto C, Van Damme P, Het F, Gothefors L, Van der Wielen M: Costs of community – acquired pediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis in 7 European countries: The REVEAL Study. J Infect Dis. 2007, 36-44. 10.1086/516716. Suppl 1
- The Pediatric ROTavirus European CommitTee (PROTEC): The paediatric burden of rotavirus disease in Europe. Epidemiol Infect. 2006, 134: 908-916. 10.1017/S0950268806006091.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gil A, Carrasco P, Jiménez R, San-Martín M, Oyagüez I, González A: Burden of hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus infection in children in Spain, period 1999–2000. Vaccine. 2004, 22: 2221-2225. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.037.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades 9° revisión, modificación clínica. Edición electrónica de la CIE-9-MC, 5° edición (2006). Versión 2.2.03. [http://www.msc.es/estadEstudios/ecie9mc/webcie9mc/webcie9mc.htm]
- Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos. Hospitales del INSALUD. [http://www.ingesa.msc.es/estadEstudios/documPublica/CMBD-2001.htm]
- El conjunto mínimo básico de datos en el SNS: inicios y desarrollo actual. [http://www.fuentesestadisticas.com/Numero49/Paginas/18-19.htm]
- Proyecciones de población calculadas a partir del Censo del 2001. [http://www.ine.es/inebmenu/indice.htm]
- Roman E, Valencia R, Fernández-Merino JC, Gallardo MV: Contribution of the microbiology laboratory to epidmeiologic surveillance. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003, 21: 387-388. 10.1157/13050535.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Consumo de recursos según complejidad de los pacientes atendidos en los hospitales del Sistema Nacional de Salud. [http://www.msc.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/docs/GRD_2003.pdf]
- CMS-DRG version 22. [http://www.dhs.state.or.us/policy/healthplan/guides/hospital/drg_tables/drg22cms.pdf]
- Giaquinto C, Van Damme P, Huet F, Gothefors L, Maxwell M, Todd P, Dal L: Clinical consequences of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in Europe, 2004–2005: The REVEAL Study. J Infect Dis. 2007, 26-35. 10.1086/516717. Suppl 1
- Ryan MJ, Ramsay M, Brown D, Gay N, Farrington CP, Wall PG: Hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus infection in England and Wales. J Infect Dis. 1996, 12-18. Suppl 1
- de Wit Ma, Koopmans MP, van der Blij JF, van Duynhoven YT: Hospital admissions for rotavirus infection in the Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis. 2000, 31: 698-704. 10.1086/314025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Damme P, Giaquinto C, Huet F, Gothefors L, Maxwell M, Van der Wielen M, REVEAL Study Group: Multicenter prospective study of the burden of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in Europe, 2004–2005: The REVEAL study. Infect Dis. 2007, 4-16. 10.1086/516714. Suppl 1
- Vesikari T, Rautanem T, Bonsdorff CHV: Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Finland: Burden of disease and epidemiological features. Acta Paediatr. 1999, 426: 24-30. 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1999.tb14322.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Glass RI, Kilgore PE, Colman RC, Jin S, Smith JC, Woods PA, Clarke MJ, Ho MS, Gentsch JR: The epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in the United States: surveillance and estimates of disease burden. J Infect Dis. 1996, 5-11. Suppl 1
- Diez-Domingo J, Martín IO, Sanz AB, López AG, Martínez CC, Boronat CP, Del Barrio MJ, García DG, Pons MM, Crespo VA, Esteve PA, Armella IL, Monrabal IS, Baveira LB, López MG: Rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under five years of age in Valencia, Spain. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2006, 25: 455-57. 10.1097/01.inf.0000217378.30444.21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakagomi T, Nakagomi O, Takashashi Y, Enoki M, Suzuki T, Kilgore PE: Incidence and burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japan, as estimated from a prospective sentinel hospital study. J Infect Dis. 2005, 106-110. 10.1086/431503. Suppl 1
- Gabutti G, Lazzara C, Marsella M, Bergamini M, Malaventura C, Borgna-Pignatti C: Burden of hospitalizations due to Rotavirus infection in Emilia Romagna, Italy. Acta Biomed. 2007, 78: 176-181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fischer TK, Nielsen NM, Wohlfahrt J, Paerregaard A: Incidence and cost of rotavirus hospitalizations in Denmark. Emerg Infec Dis. 2007, 13: 855-859.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos 2005. [http://www.msc.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/cmbd.htm]
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/8/109/prepub