Willingness to use a rapid diagnostic test for malaria in a rural area of central Côte d’Ivoire
- Colombe Coffie Comoé†1, 2,
- Allassane F Ouattara†1, 3, 4,
- Giovanna Raso1, 4, 5,
- Marcel Tanner4, 5,
- Jürg Utzinger4, 5 and
- Benjamin G Koudou1, 3, 6Email author
© Comoé et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 12 January 2012
Accepted: 12 December 2012
Published: 18 December 2012
Malaria mortality is mainly a direct consequence of inadequate and/or delayed diagnosis and case management. Some important control interventions (e.g. long-lasting insecticidal nests) have contributed to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in different parts of the world. Moreover, the development and effective use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) hold promise to further enhance the control and elimination of malaria, particularly in areas where health services are deficient. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs in relation to RDTs for malaria in rural Côte d’Ivoire.
One hundred individuals from Bozi and Yoho who sought care at the health centre in Bozi and were offered an RDT for malaria were interviewed in April 2010 using a pre-tested questionnaire on practice and perceptions in relation to RDTs for malaria. The relationships between acceptance of RDTs and factors related to opinions were identified, using generalized linear mixed models. Qualitative data from open-ended questions complemented the quantitative analysis.
Only 34 out of 100 patients who were offered an RDT for malaria were willing to undergo the test. People who perceived blood as a sacred body fluid were less likely to comply with an RDT. The concurrent availability and use of RDTs for HIV and malaria was associated with an unwilling attitude towards RDTs for malaria (Fisher’s exact test, p <0.001). The initial willingness of patients to accept malaria testing with RDTs was significantly related to general fear and wanting to know malaria infection status. For further and regular use of RDTs, a strong relationship was observed between acceptance and the idea that an RDT is a pretext used by health worker to know HIV status (odds ratio (OR) = 16.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-268.5). Those thinking that blood samples were useful for medical diagnoses were 8.31-times (95% CI = 2.22-31.1) more likely to undergo an RDT compared to those rejecting blood sampling as a diagnostic strategy.
Socio-cultural factors might be barriers for accepting RDTs in general health services. There are social representations of malaria and HIV/AIDS, symbolic for blood or experiences in relation to blood taking and blood-related diseases in relation to the introduction and routine use of RDTs. Special attention should be given to these barriers as otherwise the promotion of RDTs for prompt and effective diagnosis and subsequent management of malaria is hampered.
KeywordsMalaria Rapid diagnostic test Blood Blood-related disease Social representation HIV Côte d’Ivoire
Malaria is still an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere in the developing world . Children under the age of five years and pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups . Morbidity and mortality resulting from this parasitic disease remain serious obstacles for the social and economic development of the most affected regions [3, 4]. Prevention and control emphasising the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets [5, 6], indoor residual spraying  and prompt diagnosis and adequate management of uncomplicated malaria , have significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in many endemic areas of Africa [9–11]. However, primarily in remote rural areas, malaria remains a major public health issue due to inadequate care  and the absence of effective diagnosis and treatment . Although symptomatic diagnosis has been successfully performed in some remote areas [14, 15], in high transmission settings, it has often proven problematic [16–18] leading to an overuse of antimalarial drugs. Usually, patients who present with fever at a health facility are given artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) [19, 20] without prior parasitological diagnosis [21, 22].
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria provide an opportunity for improved point-of-care diagnosis and better disease management in malaria-endemic areas . RDTs for malaria, similar to RDTs used to detect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can be utilized at the point-of-care. RDTs are easy to use and provide reliable results within 15–20 minutes [24, 25]. Compared to other diagnostic methods (e.g. Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films examined under a microscope), RDTs are highly cost-effective [26–28]. Consequently, RDTs have become essential tools in malaria control and elimination [20, 29–31].
Although several studies have been carried out to investigate the diagnostic performance (i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) of RDTs for malaria [32–35], including willingness to pay for such tests , there is a paucity of community-based studies investigating the acceptability and appropriateness of RDTs in relation to people’s beliefs and practices. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of two rural communities in central Côte d’Ivoire with regard to RDTs for malaria.
The study protocol was reviewed by the institutional research commission of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire (CSRS; Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire) and received formal approval by the national ethics committee of Côte d’Ivoire. The heads of households in the study villages were informed about the objective and procedures of the study.
Oral consent was obtained from each patient (or legal guardian/caretaker for minors) before using an RDT performed on a finger-prick blood sample. Illiteracy rate is very high in the study area leading to an oral rather than written informed consent. The aims, procedures and data confidentiality were explained to the participants, so that they could make an informed decision of whether or not they wanted to be enrolled. Participation was voluntary with no further obligations for those who declined having an RDT performed. All patients were offered free treatment according to the diagnoses and the national treatment guidelines.
Study area and population
The study was carried out in the Bozi health centre located in the district of Bouaflé in central Côte d’Ivoire (geographical coordinates: 06°55.151’ N latitude, 05°32.080’ W longitude). This health centre serves mainly two villages, Bozi itself and the neighbouring village Yoho. The two villages are situated along the Bandama River. The mean annual rainfall is approximately 1,000 mm and the average temperature is about 27°C. At the time of our study, there were 1,847 inhabitants in Bozi and 1,989 in Yoho . Bozi people belong to the Baoulé ethnic group, whereas Yoho people are Yowèrè.
The health centre in Bozi had been established in 1975 by a private donor, and is currently managed by a nurse and a midwife. Two medical assistants complement the health staff. Medical consultations are provided on a daily basis and there are a few hospital beds available for in-patients. Moreover, the Bozi health centre is used for vaccinations of newborns and antenatal consultations.
For many years, patients visiting the Bozi health centre received free treatment, including antimalarial drugs, facilitated by regular provision of subsidized supplies by the external grantee. The only financial contribution requested by those who sought health care pertained to drugs prescribed by the medical staff that were not available in the pharmacy of the Bozi health centre. From 1994 onwards, a payment scheme was established for any services received by patients visiting Bozi health centre due to the termination of external funds. This change of policy from free treatment to a paying scheme resulted in a substantial reduction of health service utilisation. At the time of the current study, there were no other health centres within a radius of 10 km from Bozi.
In February 2010, a total of 100 malaria RDTs (ICT ML01 Malaria Pf test; ICT Diagnostics, Cape Town, South Africa) were made available to the Bozi health centre by the research team. Medical staff was trained to use and report results of malaria RDTs. Health workers offered to perform an RDT for malaria free of charge to those patients who presented with fever (i.e. axillary temperature >37.5°C). Using lay terms, patients were explained the opportunity to have a finger-prick blood sample subjected to an RDT for malaria in order to prescribe appropriate medication. Patients without fever and those living outside Bozi and Yoho were not eligible for enrolment.
Within two months, a total of 100 people who met our inclusion criteria were offered an RDT for malaria, but not all of them were willing to have an RDT performed. In April 2010, one of the authors (CCC), accompanied by a key informant from Bozi, conducted a cross-sectional survey. The objective was to identify and visit all the 100 people in their homes and to interview them with a pre-tested questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed five main themes: (i) characterization of the person who was offered an RDT (e.g. demographic features, educational attainment, religion, etc.); (ii) knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria therapy; (iii) perception of blood and blood-related diseases; (iv) perception of RDTs for malaria, including reasons for acceptance or refusal to have the test performed; and (v) socio-cultural ideologies related to RDTs.
Additionally, health care providers (nurse and midwife), traditional healers and religious leaders were interviewed to gather specific information on patients’ acceptance or rejections of RDTs. Interviews with medical staff aimed at identifying barriers of using RDTs, which were further investigated in a series of in-depth interviews with the respective patients. Questions addressed to a traditional healer were focused on patients’ treatment and the importance of taking a blood sample for the diagnosis prior to prescribing an antimalarial drug. Religious leaders were interviewed for their opinions of their congregations about treatment and acceptance of modern health care provided at health care facilities. Particular emphasis was placed on the rules and arguments forwarded by religious leaders that forbid the use of blood for medical examination. The questionnaire and topic guides (in French) are available from the authors upon request.
Analyses were performed using R software version 2.10.1 (the R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2009). Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to calculate odds ratios (ORs). Response variables were the acceptance of malaria RDTs that was offered free of charge during initial health seeking (first use) and acceptance to have an RDT performed once again if deemed necessary in the future (further use). Data were categorical (yes or no). We developed two separate models: (i) for “first use” and (ii) “further use”. The models used fixed effects that were selected among parameters identified through our questionnaire survey, using a backward elimination approach, removing variables with a P value <0.2, one at a time. Village was included in the models as random effect. To compare groups, χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate, were employed. ORs were used to express statistical difference, including 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Qualitative data were gathered along the two main themes “belief” and “medical examination” in connection with RDTs for malaria. Each theme was addressed according to specific topics (e.g. blood, malaria, effectiveness and usefulness). Once data were categorized and coded in an Excel spreadsheet, the major trends and patterns were identified. More detailed descriptions, as articulated by the respondents (freely translated from French to English), were extracted to underscore and/or complement the quantitative results.
Determinants for accepting or rejecting RDTs for malaria
Characteristics of the study population, stratified by whether or not people were willing to have an RDT for malaria performed
Number of people interviewed (%)
Willing to have an RDT for malaria performed (n=34)
Unwilling to have an RDT for malaria performed (n=66)
Age group (years)
Number of children
Local perception of blood and blood-related diseases
Percentage of local perception of blood and blood-related diseases, stratified by people’s willingness or unwillingness of using an RDT for malaria
Local perception of blood
Blood is sacred body fluid
Blood keeps life in the body
Malaria is inside the blood
Know about malaria
Custom allows blood test
Religion allows blood test
Reason to have a blood examination performed or not
Fate of blood after test
Need to do blood test for a patient
Depends on disease
Need to do blood test for malaria patient
Justification to do blood testing by suspected malaria patients
Treated without test
In general two distinct types of malaria were mentioned. First, palu garçon (“male malaria”). In the local Baoulé language the term for this type of malaria is djè kouadjo yafua or palu rouge (“red malaria”, with reference to jaundice), and the local Yowèrè language uses the term djé kouadjo clonmon. Both expressions are associated with the harshness related to complicated and more severe manifestations of malaria. Second, palu femme (“female malaria”) or palu blanc (“white malaria”) refers to uncomplicated milder forms of malaria. Local terms for these types of malaria are djè kouadjo (Baoulé) and djé kouadio limon (Yowèrè).
These results must be seen against the background of the common local concept that considers modern medicine as treating only the body, whereas traditional medicine addresses occult origins of a disease without resorting to the blood. As expressed by a traditional healer: “when patients agree, I consult the spirits to enlighten me on the origin of evil before advising the plants to be used to treat the disease. I don’t use the blood of patients for their care even when it is palu garçon”.
Local beliefs of RDTs for malaria
Response percentage of local beliefs of RDTs for malaria, stratified by RDTs acceptance
Opinions on RDTs
Reason to have a blood test made
Free of charge
Fear of malaria test
Reason for whether or not to repeat a malaria test
Accuracy of test
Knowledge about HIV
Reason for whether or not to do an HIV test
HIV test rather than malaria test
Blood is used for something else
Traditional treatments are in line with people’s customs and beliefs, as underscored by the following quote: “Hospital cannot cure palu garçon (jaundice). If you have malaria and use a serum you die. Because we don’t know if malaria is a male or a female, thus giving first preference in consulting traditional doctors”. Many of the respondents found RDTs for malaria of no use. Indeed, they expressed their opinions by saying: “We know this disease very well, we have been several times victim of it. We do not need to be tested” (male respondent, 40-year-old). Or, as expressed by another study participant in the unwilling group: “People must have malaria and hemorrhoids in their body at any time. We are routinely exposed to the sun so when we are sick, we know that it is malaria. We do not need your malaria test” (male, aged 45 years).
However, in spite of these local beliefs, some respondents were aware of the non-specificity of some malaria symptoms, as revealed by the following argument: “When you have stomach ulcers, you feel as if you have early malaria. If this test helps to pay cheaper drugs because we do not have malaria, it is a good deal” (35-year-old female respondent).
Acceptance of having an RDT done for malaria
Generalized linear mixed model results (outcome: RDT acceptance; fixed effects: parameters; random effects: village)
Accept malaria diagnosis with an RDT (first use)
Accept malaria diagnosis with an RDT (further use)
OR (95% CI)
OR (95% CI)
Blood is sacred body fluid
Blood keeps life in the body
Malaria is inside the blood
Blood sample for medical test
Utility of an RDT
Reason to have (or not) a malaria test done
Free of charge
Know HIV status
Knowledge about HIV
HIV test knowledge
Reason to have (or not) an HIV test done
Difference between malaria and HIV test
HIV test rather than malaria test
The acceptance of having an RDTs for malaria performed at the first time, was not associated with patients thinking that RDTs are a pretext used by health worker to know HIV status (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0–51.9) as well as those thinking that blood samples were necessary for medical diagnoses and other illness-related issues (OR = 5.30, 95% CI = 0.37-75.3). However, if asked whether they were willing to undertake further RDTs in future, a strong relationship was observed between acceptance and the idea that RDTs is a pretext used by health worker to know HIV status (OR = 16.61, 95% CI = 1.03-268.5). Those thinking that obtaining a blood sample was useful to diagnose for specific diseases through medical examination had an odds of 8.31 (95% CI: 2.22-31.1) to be ready to undergo an RDT for malaria in future compared to their counterparts with an opposed thinking.
ACTs have become the first-line treatment and the large-scale use is assured by the support of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund in short), which has led to a much higher use in most endemic areas over the past decade despite the relatively high costs of these drugs. Inaccurate and/or delayed diagnosis led to an overconsumption of antimalarial that can also contribute to the development and spread of drug resistance . The introduction of RDTs significantly reduces these risks  and provides a unique opportunity to render the approach of prompt diagnosis and treatment at peripheral level, i.e. the point-of-care, more effective . Clearly, the use of RDT has opened up new ways for adequate case management. However, acceptance of RDTs still remains an issue for many endemic areas, as rural populations do not necessarily agree having their blood tested even for RDTs for malaria. Currently, little is known about social, cultural and religious factors governing people’s attitudes and behaviour that govern acceptance of RDTs.
Our study, undertaken in a rural part of central Côte d’Ivoire, revealed specific local concepts with regard to the perception of blood, blood-related diseases and having blood tested with an RDT. Interestingly, the majority of people from Bozi were unwilling to have an RDT for malaria done that was provided free of charge, but this was somewhat influenced by educational attainment. Indeed, unlike Bozi, the majority of household heads in Yoho had attended at least primary school. Moreover, the percentage of children from mothers with at least primary education was higher in Yoho . According to our questionnaire survey, people believe that they know the manifestations of clinical symptoms due to malaria, and hence they do not see the necessity for an RDT prior to start with treatment. Patients from Bozi and Yoho were aware of some of the dangers posed by malaria. However, based on direct observation by our research team, residents from Bozi largely negated help-seeking as they perceived the quality of care as low. Since Yoho inhabitants paid for transportation to get to the Bozi health centre, it seems conceivable that they seek care for only serious conditions. In contrast, free testing with an RDT for malaria and access to drugs increased their willingness to do the exams. In addition, the user-provider interactions are crucial as also observed in a study in Ghana investigating the relationship between health workers and patients . Malaria can be easily treated when promptly diagnosed but owing to people’s perceptions and beliefs, several barriers still exist as indicated by this and many other studies. Two key determinants are, first, inappropriate self-medication with medicinal plants or inappropriate medicine  and, second counterfeit or substandard medicines as revealed in studies from Nigeria [41–43].
Therapies from health centres and traditional healers were used together, showing an interest to modern medicine mixed with more traditional remedies. For the group of people who were unwilling to have malaria RDTs done, it was their belief that, traditional healers provided good and clear diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, visiting a health centre would mean to have modern drugs that will speed up their recovery.
There were various opinions from our surveys which contributed to a deeper understanding of the attitudes and behaviours of Yoho and Bozi populations with regard to RDTs for malaria. The introduction of RDTs was clearly affected by the different levels of acceptability owing to the innovative nature of this diagnostic tool and its use at different levels of the health care delivery systems. People linked their reluctance to previous experiences with blood taking and use. For instance, blood would also be used for other occult practices such as bewitching and fetishisms, among others. For people, blood was considered a sacred biofluid and the source of life. It cannot be used anyhow except when asked purposely for medical testing. This is the reason why, some people in the study area were compliant to accept RDTs for malaria, but not for other diseases. By contrast there was also another group of people who believed that for a disease like malaria, there is no need to do a diagnostic test because the signs were sufficient to confirm the idea that the disease (especially malaria) “is not in the blood”. Traditional representations did influence the acceptance of RDTs for malaria. One of these representations was the feeling to have the best treatment against malaria. According to their opinion, the best treatment against malaria did not require the use of blood unlike malaria RDTs. Thus, the local concepts of malaria as a disease do have a considerable influence on malaria management [44, 45].
Acceptability of RDTs was also governed by the level of perceived fear. Interviewed persons expressed their fear based on the pain caused by the needle prick, but also other fears, particularly that blood samples would be utilized for checking their HIV status instead of malaria. Indeed, we found a high rate of people who refused to have an RDT performed for malaria, which might be explained by the fact that before introducing malaria RDTs at the health centre of Bozi, RDTs for HIV were already available. Patients might have been afraid to have their HIV status revealed, and hence explaining their reluctance to undergo an RDT for malaria. Reports from Tanzania showed that people had the same feeling of fear towards RDTs. Nevertheless the usage of RDTs was of little matter when they understood that this test confirmed malaria presence and helped to make effective and right prescription for the most appropriate drugs leading to cure . Our findings thus emphasize the importance of information, education and communication (IEC) readily adapted to the local context.
Some social parameters had no influence on RDTs acceptance, but played a more subtle role. We noted that higher education level was a factor of better adherence to RDTs. In these rural areas those who were educated seek information from the specialized people as indicated. Thus, they received appropriate responses to their concerns and questions. Attitudes and behaviour towards RDTs was also partly motivated by the strict observance of religious prohibitions. These aspects prevented proper social integration of malaria RDTs to these rural communities.
In other areas, RDTs for malaria were well accepted by volunteers from the community. This was the most appropriate way to diagnose asymptomatic cases of malaria . Urban populations were more ready and able to purchase malaria RDTs, while rural population and the poorest of the poor preferred RDTs free of charge . In some countries, health workers use RDTs but adherence to the result is low [48–50]. For example, low adherence to RDTs was observed in rural parts of Burkina Faso because the health workers were more confident to the usual malaria symptoms from their experience than any new malaria test, which sometimes challenged their classical diagnosis  or it could be related to their inability to better perform and interpret results from the test .
Our study has some limitations. First, we pursued a convenience sampling and the size of our sample is relatively small (i.e. 100 RDTs for malaria were provided free of charge to a single health centre and a total of 100 people were interviewed). Second, within two months 100 individuals seeking care at the Bozi health centre met our inclusion criteria (i.e. axillary temperature >37.5°C), and hence were offered an RDT for malaria, but only about a third were willing to perform the rapid test. Due to time and budget constraints, we were unable to run the study until all 100 RDTs had been utilized. Third, our cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out two months after the introduction of RDTs for malaria, which might have introduced some recall bias. Finally, based on a single health centre and some observations that patients were no entirely satisfied with the overall quality of the service, it is difficult to generalize our findings. Clearly, our study was designed as an exploratory piece, and hence larger-scale studies should be undertaken to assess the full validity of the findings reported here.
The present work addressed some of the social and cultural dimensions of introducing RDTs for malaria, which is essential for prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment. Acceptability is governed by socio-cultural and political factors, which need to be taken into account when tailoring integrated malaria control or elimination to a specific setting. The parallel use of RDTs for HIV and malaria calls for specific action and messages in the programmes to sensitize communities so that the two crucial point-of-care tests remain effective tools. Major challenges in the field (e.g. locally adapted IEC strategies) are ahead of us if we really coherently embark on an integrated malaria control that will eventually lead to malaria elimination/eradication.
Artemisinin-based combination therapies
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d’Ivoire
- Global Fund:
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
Human immunodeficiency virus
Rapid diagnostic test.
The authors thank the authorities and populations of Bozi and Yoho for their participation in the current study. They are grateful to health providers. Special thanks are addressed to two external referees for carefully reviewing this manuscript. This study received financial support from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. GR and JU acknowledge financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (project nos. 32003B-132949/1 and IZ70Z0_123900). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
- Murray CJL, Rosenfeld LC, Lim SS, Andrews KG, Foreman KJ, Haring D, Fullman N, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Lopez AD: Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2012, 379: 413-431. 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60034-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Snow RW, Korenromp EL, Gouws E: Pediatric mortality in Africa: Plasmodium falciparum malaria as a cause or risk. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004, 72: 26-29.Google Scholar
- Anthony E, Kiszewski A, Teklehaimanot A: A review of the clinical and epidemiologic burdens of epidemic malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004, 71: 128-135.Google Scholar
- Malaney P, Spielman A, Sachs J: The malaria gap. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004, 71: 141-146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lengeler C: Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004, 2: CD000363-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koudou BG, Ouattara FA, Edi AVC, Nsanzabana C, Tia E, Tchicaya ES, Tanner M, Bonfoh B, Dagnogo M, Utzinger J: Transmission du paludisme en zone de haute couverture en moustiquaires imprégnées d'insecticide de longue durée, au centre de la Côte d'Ivoire. Med Trop. 2010, 70: 479-484.Google Scholar
- Yukich JO, Lengeler C, Tediosi F, Brown N, Mulligan J-A, Chavasse D, Stevens W, Justino J, Conteh L, Maharaj R, et al: Costs and consequences of large-scale vector control for malaria. Malar J. 2008, 7: 258-10.1186/1475-2875-7-258.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- WHO: New perspectives. Malaria diagnosis. 2000, Geneva: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- Thwing J, Eisele TP, Steketee RW: Protective efficacy of malaria case management and intermittent preventive treatment for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool. BMC Public Health. 2011, 11: S14-View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Konaté AT, Yaro JB, Ouédraogo AZ, Diarra A, Gansané A, Soulama I, Kangoyé DT, Kaboré Y, Ouédraogo E, Ouédraogo A, et al: Morbidity from malaria in children in the year after they had received intermittent preventive treatment of malaria: a randomised trial. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e23391-10.1371/journal.pone.0023391.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Skarbinski J, Mwandama D, Wolkon A, Luka M, Jafali J, Smith A, Mzilahowa T, Gimnig J, Campbell CH, Chiphwanya J, et al: Impact of indoor residual spraying with lambda-cyhalothrin on malaria parasitemia and anemia prevalence among children less than five years of age in an area of intense, year-round transmission in Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012, 86: 997-1004. 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0621.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Simba DO, Warsame M, Kakoko D, Mrango Z, Tomson G, Premji Z, Petzold M: Who gets prompt access to artemisinin-based combination therapy? A prospective community-based study in children from rural Kilosa, Tanzania. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e12104-10.1371/journal.pone.0012104.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Greenwood B, Mutabingwa T: Malaria in 2002. Nature. 2002, 415: 670-672. 10.1038/415670a.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghebreyesus TA, Haile M, Getachew A, Alemayehu T, Witten KH, Medhin A, Yohannesf M, Asgedomf Y, Ye-ebiyo Y: Pilot studies on the possible effects on malaria of small irrigation dams in Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. J Public Health Med. 1998, 20: 238-240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruebush TK, Zeissig R, Godoy HA, Klein RE: Use of illiterate volunteer workers for malaria case detection and treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1990, 84: 119-125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogier C, Henry MC, Spiegel A: Diagnostic des accès palustres en zone d'endémie: Bases théoriques et implications pratiques. Med Trop. 2001, 61: 27-46.Google Scholar
- Genton B, Smith T, Baea K, Narara A, Al-Yaman F, Beck HP, Hii J, Alpers M: Malaria: how useful are clinical criteria for improving the diagnosis in a highly endemic area?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994, 88: 537-541. 10.1016/0035-9203(94)90152-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Armstrong-Schellenberg JR, Smith T, Alonso PV, Hayes RJ: What is clinical malaria ? Finding case definitions for field research in highly endemic areas. Parasitol Today. 1994, 10: 439-442. 10.1016/0169-4758(94)90179-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gruenais ME: Personnels de santé et populations face à l'expérience ordinaire des fièvres en Afrique Subsaharienne. Med Trop. 2003, 63: 271-275.Google Scholar
- Rogier C: Comment diagnostiquer les accès palustres ?. Med Trop. 2004, 64: 319-320.Google Scholar
- Ducret JP, Ponchon D, Charpentier JC, Brun P: African-Quin: Résultats d'une étude pragmatique sur le diagnostic de l'accès palustre simple et son traitement par la quinine en Afrique francophone. Med Trop. 2001, 61: 21-26.Google Scholar
- Jaffre Y: Les apports de l'anthropologie sociale à la lutte contre le paludisme. Med Trop. 2003, 63: 276-281.Google Scholar
- D'Acremont V, Malila A, Swai N, Tillya R, Kahama-Maro J, Lengeler C, Genton B: Withholding antimalarials in febrile children who have a negative result for a rapid diagnostic test. Clin Infect Dis. 2010, 51: 506-511. 10.1086/655688.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zurovac D, Midia B, Ochola SA, English M, Snow RW: Microscopy and outpatient malaria case management among older children and adults in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2006, 11: 432-440. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01587.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bharti PK, Silawat N, Singh PP, Singh MP, Shukla M, Chand G, Dash AP, Singh N: The usefulness of a new rapid diagnostic test, the First Response® Malaria Combo (pLDH/HRP2) card test, for malaria diagnosis in the forested belt of central India. Malar J. 2008, 7: 126-10.1186/1475-2875-7-126.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shillcutt S, Morel C, Goodman C, Coleman P, Bell D, Whitty CJM, Mills A: Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnostic methods in sub-Saharan Africa in an era of combination therapy. Bull World Health Organ. 2008, 86: 101-110. 10.2471/BLT.07.042259.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chanda P, Riquelme MC, Masiye F: Cost-effectiveness analysis of the available strategies for diagnosing malaria in outpatient clinics in Zambia. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2009, 7: 5-10.1186/1478-7547-7-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Uzochukwu BSC, Onwujekwe OE, Uguru NP, Ughasoro MD, Ezeoke OP: Willingness to pay for rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria: ex post and ex ante. Int J Equity Health. 2010, 9: 1-10.1186/1475-9276-9-1.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Guthmann JP, Ruiz A, Priotto G, Kiguli J, Bonte L, Legros D: Validity, reliability and ease of use in the field of five rapid tests for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002, 96: 254-257. 10.1016/S0035-9203(02)90091-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh N, Saxena A: Usefulness of a rapid on-site Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis (Paracheck PF) in forest migrants and among the indigenous population at the site of their occupational activities in central India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005, 66: 310-313.Google Scholar
- Kyabayinze DJ, Asiimwe C, Nakanjako D, Nabakooza J, Counihan H, Tibenderana JK: Use of RDTs to improve malaria diagnosis and fever case management at primary health care facilities in Uganda. Malar J. 2010, 9: 200-10.1186/1475-2875-9-200.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Naing CM, Gatton ML: Performance appraisal of rapid on-site malaria diagnosis (ICT malaria Pf/P_ test) in relation to human resources at village level in Myanmar. Acta Trop. 2002, 81: 13-19. 10.1016/S0001-706X(01)00189-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rakotonirina H, Barnadas C, Raherijafy R, Andrianantenaina H, Ratsimbasoa A, Randrianasolo L, Jahevitra M, Andriantsoanirina V, Ménard D: Accuracy and reliability of malaria diagnostic techniques for guiding febrile outpatient treatment in malaria-endemic countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008, 78: 217-221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sharew B, Legesse M, Animut A, Jima D, Medhin GBE: Evaluation of the performance of CareStartTM Malaria Pf/Pv Combo and Paracheck Pf® tests for the diagnosis of malaria in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 2009, 111: 321-324. 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.05.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gerstl S, Dunkley S, Mukhtar A, Smet M, Baker S, Maikere J: Assessment of two malaria rapid diagnostic tests in children under five years of age, with followup of false-positive pLDH test results, in a hyperendemic falciparum malaria area, Sierra Leone. Malar J. 2010, 9: 28-10.1186/1475-2875-9-28.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ouattara AF, Raso G, Edi CVA, Utzinger J, Tanner M, Dagnogo M, Koudou BG: Malaria knowledge and long-lasting insecticidal net use in rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire. Malar J. 2011, 10: 288-10.1186/1475-2875-10-288.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bell D, Wongsrichanalai C, Barnwel JW: Ensuring quality and access for malaria diagnosis: how can it be achieved?. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006, 4: 682-695. 10.1038/nrmicro1474.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- WHO: Universal access to malaria diagnostic testing: An operational manual. 2011, Geneva: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- Chandler CI, Whitty CJ, Ansah EK: How can malaria rapid diagnostic tests achieve their potential?A qualitative study of a trial at health facilities in Ghana. Malar J. 2010, 9: 95-10.1186/1475-2875-9-95.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Essé C, Utzinger J, Tschannen AB, Raso G, Pfeiffer C, Granado S, Koudou BG, N'Goran EK, Cissé G, Girardin O, et al: Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central Côte d'Ivoire. Malar J. 2008, 7: 224-10.1186/1475-2875-7-224.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Uzochukwu BSC, Onwujekwe OE: Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south-east Nigeria. Int J Equity Health. 2004, 3: 6-10.1186/1475-9276-3-6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sambo MN, Ejembi CL, Adamu YM, Aliyu AA: Out-of-pocket health expenditure for under-five illnesses in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria. J Comm Med Primary Health Care. 2004, 16: 29-32.Google Scholar
- Onwujekwe O, Dike N, Ojukwu J, Uzochukwu B, Ezumah N, Shu E, Okonkwo P: Consumers stated and revealed preferences for community health workers and other strategies for the provision of timely and appropriate treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria. Malar J. 2006, 5: 117-10.1186/1475-2875-5-117.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Beiersmann C, Sanou A, Wladarsch E, De Allegri M, Kouyaté B, Müller O: Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour. Malar J. 2007, 6: 106-10.1186/1475-2875-6-106.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Some DT, Zerbo R: Etiologie atypique du paludisme: perceptions et stratégies locales de prévention dans le département de Gaoua, Burkina Faso. Med Trop. 2007, 67: 43-47.Google Scholar
- Williams HA, Causer L, Metta E, Malila A, O'Reilly T, Abdulla S, Kachur SP, Bloland PB: Dispensary level pilot implementation of rapid diagnostic tests: an evaluation of RDT acceptance and usage by providers and patients-Tanzania, 2005. Malar J. 2008, 7: 239-10.1186/1475-2875-7-239.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bell D, Go R, Miguel C, Walker J, Cacal L, Saul A: Diagnosis of malaria in a remote area of the Philippines: comparison of techniques and their acceptance by health workers and the community. Bull World Health Organ. 2001, 79: 933-941.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hamer DH, Ndhlovu M, Zurovac D, Fox M, Yeboah-Antwi K, Chanda PNS, Simon JL, Snow RW: Improved diagnostic testing and malaria treatment practices in Zambia. JAMA. 2007, 297: 2227-2231. 10.1001/jama.297.20.2227.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Reyburn H, Mbakilwa H, Mwangi R, Mwerinde O, Olomi R, Drakeley C, Whitty CJM: Rapid diagnostic tests compared with malaria microscopy for guiding outpatient treatment of febrile illness inTanzania: randomised trial. BMJ. 2007, 334: 403-10.1136/bmj.39073.496829.AE.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lubell Y, Reyburn H, Mbakilwa H, Mwangi R, Chonya S, Whitty CJM, Mills A: The impact of response to the results of diagnostic tests for malaria: cost-benefit analysis. BMJ. 2008, 336: 202-205. 10.1136/bmj.39395.696065.47.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bisoffi Z, Sirima BS, Angheben A, Lodesani C, Gobbi F, Tinto H, Van den Ende J: Rapid malaria diagnostic tests vs. clinical management of malaria in rural Burkina Faso: safety and effect on clinical decisions. A randomized trial. Trop Med Int Health. 2009, 14: 491-498. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02246.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/1089/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.